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Tropical agroforestry.

Author: Damase Khasa
Publisher: Dordrecht : Springer Dordrecht 2014.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English
Agroforestry is recognized as a sustainable land-use management in the tropics, as it provides environmental-friendly ecosystems; it also provides people with their every day need for food and cash. Since the recognition of agroforestry as a science, curricula have been developed for agroforestry programs for undergraduate and graduate trainings in Universities. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop and make  Read more...

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Damase Khasa
ISBN: 9789400777224 9400777221
OCLC Number: 871243488
Description: 350 pages
Contents: Preface.- Acknowledgements.- Table of Contents.- List of Figures.- List of Tables.- Part I: Tropical Biomes, Land Use Issues and Introduction to Agroforestry Systems.- 1. Tropical biomes: classification and description.- 1.1. Classification of biomes based on climate.- 1.1.1. The Koeppen-Geiger classification system.- 1.1.2. The Holdridge life zones system.- 1.2. Other classification systems of biomes.- 1.2.1. Forest classification according to plant species.- 1.2.2. Forest classification based on soil nutrient status.- 1.2.3. Forest classification based on function.- 1.2.4. Classification of semiarid tropical biomes.- 1.3. Main tropical humid and semiarid biomes.- 1.3.1. Congo basin rain forests.- 1.3.2. Central and South American rain forests.- 1.3.3. Southeast Asian tropical rain forests.- 1.3.4. Australian savannas.- 1.3.5. African savannas.- 1.3.6. Central American and Caribbean Islands savannas.- 1.3.7. South American savannas.- 2. The importance of tropical forest and semiarid ecosystems.- Bibliography.- 2: Major Land Use Issues in the Tropics, and the History of Agroforestry.- Abstract.- Introduction.- 2.1. Impacts of traditional natural resource use on tropical ecosystems.- 2.1.1. Deforestation.- 2.1.2. Grazing.- 2.1.3. Effects of unsustainable use of ecosystem resources on soil, groundwater and fauna.- 2.1.4. Effects of unsustainable use of resources on plants and biodiversity.- 2.2. History of agroforestry.- Bibliography.- 3: Definitions and Classification of Agroforestry Systems.- Abstract.- Introduction.- 3.1. Definition of agroforestry.- 3.2. Some basic concepts in agroforestry.- 3.3. Classification of agroforestry systems.- 3.3.1. Classification based on vegetation structure.- 3.3.2. Classification based on function.- 3.3.3. Classification based on socio-economic activities.- 3.3.4. Ecological classification.- 3.3.5. A framework for agroforestry classification.- Bibliography.- 4: Major Agroforestry Systems of the Humid Tropics.- Abstract.- Introduction.- 4.1. Homegardens.- 4.1.1. Intensive small-scale farming systems.- 4.2. Perennial crop based agroforestry systems.- 4.2.1. Jungle rubbers (rubber agroforests).- 4.3. Farm woodslots.- 4.4. Annual or biennial food crop farms: slash-and-burn agriculture.- 4.5. Alley cropping/Intercropping systems.- 4.6. Improved fallows and rotational tree fallows.- 4.6.1. Improved fallows with herbaceous legumes: the case of Cajanus cajan.- Bibliography.- 5: Major Agroforestry Systems of the Semiarid Tropics.- Abstract.- Introduction.- 5.1. Annual or biannual food crop farms in the semiarid tropics: shifting cultivation.- 5.2. Multipurpose trees on farmlands: agroforestry parklands.- 5.3. Silvopastures.- 5.3.1. Fodder trees and shrubs.- 5.4. Windbreaks.- 5.4.1. Trees used as windbreaks.- 5.5. Live fences.- 5.6. Buffer strips.- Bibliography.- 6: Participatory Domestication of New Crops using Agroforestry Techniques.- Abstract.- Introduction.- 6.1. History of the participatory domestication of agroforestry species.- 6.2. Participatory domestication as implemented by ICRAF and its partners.- 6.2.1. Characterization of phenotypic variation and tree selection.- 6.2.2. Vegetative propagation of agroforestry species.- 6.2.3. Germplasm management and integration in land use systems.- 6.2.4. Genetic resources conservation.- 6.3. Priority species for domestication.- 6.3.1. Examples of tree species under domestication in the humid lowlands of West and Central Africa.- Irvingia gabonensis/Irvingia wombolu (Bush mango).- Dacryodes edulis (Safou or African Plum).- Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) Pierre ex Pax (ndjansang).- Chrysophyllum albidum (African star apple).- Garcinia kola (Bitter cola).- Gnetum africanum/Gnetum buccholzianum (Eru of Fumbua).- Cola acuminate, C. anomala and C. nitida (Kola nut or Cola Nuts).- Prunus africana (African cherry).- Pausinystalia johimbe (Yohimbe).- Annickia chlorantha (African Whitewood).- Allanblackia floribunda Oliv. (Tallow Tree).- 6.3.2. Examples of priority species for domestication in the Sahel.- 6.3.3. Domestication of priority species in Southern Africa.- 6.3.4. Domestication of priority species in Latin America.- 6.3.5. Domestication of priority species in India, Southeast Asia, and Oceania.- Bibliography.- Part II: The Benefits and Services of Agroforestry Systems.- 7. Ecological Interaction and Productivity in Agroforestry Systems.- Abstract.- Introduction.- 7.1. Interactions of components in agroforestry systems.- 7.1.1. Positive interactions.- 7.1.2. Negative interactions.- 7.1.3. Neutral interactions.- 7.2. Soil productivity in agroforestry.- Bibliography.- 8. Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Mycorrhizal Associations in Agroforestry.- Abstract.- Introduction.- 8.1. Plant species forming associations with Rhizobium or mycorrhizal fungi.- 8.1.1. Acacia sensu lato.- 8.1.2. Albizia.- 8.1.3. Calliandra calothyrsus.- 8.1.4. Erythrina.- 8.1.5. Gliricidia sepium.- 8.1.6. Inga edulis.- 8.1.7. Leucaena leucocephala.- 8.1.8. Mimosa.- 8.1.9. Sesbania.- 8.2. Actinomycorrhizal plants.- 8.2.1. Alnus acuminata (syn. Alnus jorullensis).- 8.2.2. Casuarinaceae.- 8.2.3. Coriaria.- 8.3. Quantification of nitrogen fixation.- 8.3.1. Total nitrogen difference.- 8.3.2. Acetylene reduction assay.- 8.3.3. 15N enrichment.- 8.3.4. Natural abundance in 15N.- 8.3.5. Sap nitrogen solute analysis.- 8.4. Technologies for the exploitation of nitrogen-fixing mycorrhizal plants in agroforestry.- 8.4.1. Selecting species and provenances of nitrogen-fixing trees.- 8.4.2. Inoculation with Rhizobium or Frankia.- 8.4.3. Inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi.- 8.4.4. Fertilizers.- 8.4.5. Acidity control.- 8.5. Areas of research concerning nitrogen fixation and mycorrhizae in agroforestry.- Bibliography.- 9. Agroforestry for Soil Conservation.- Abstract.- Introduction.- 9.1. Concepts and trends in soil conservation.- 9.2. Measurement of soil erosion.- 9.3. Erosion control using agroforestry practices.- 9.4. Effects of agroforestry practices on erosion factors.- 9.5. Erosion rates in agroforestry systems.- 9.6. Windbreaks for erosion control.- 9.6.1. Anticipated costs and benefits of windbreaks for soil conservation.- Bibliography.- 10. Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems.- Abstract.- Introduction.- 10.1. The potential for C sequestration in agroforestry systems.- 10.2. Agroforestry and REDD.- Bibliography.- 11. Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes.- Abstract.- Introduction.- 11.1. The agroforestry and deforestation hypothesis.- 11.2. The agroforestry - habitat hypothesis.- 11.3. The agroforestry - matrix hypothesis.- Bibliography.- 12. Integrated Pest Management in Tropical Agroforestry.- Abstract.- 12.1. Pests in tropical agroforestry systems.- 12.2. Agroforestry practices for pest management.- 12.3. Research areas on pest management using agroforestry techniques.- Bibliography.- Part III: Research Methods in Agroforestry.- 13. Diagnosis and Design (D & D) Approach and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA).- Abstract.- Introduction.- 13.1. The D & D method.- 13.2. Main concepts and procedures of the D & D method.- 13.3. Scales of D & D.- 13.4. Participatory Rural Appraisal in agroforestry.- 13.5. Evaluating agroforestry technologies.- Bibliography.- 14. Experimental Design in Agroforestry.- Abstract.- 14.1. Agroforestry research.- 14.2. Experimentation in the field.- 14.3. Particularities of agroforestry experiments.- 14.3.1. Size and arrangements of the plot.- 14.3.2. Experimental designs.- 14.4. On-going field agroforestry experiments in the tropics.- 14.4.1. Screening and MPTS selection tests.- 14.4.2. Experiments on management systems and components.- 14.4.3. Studies on the interaction of components.- 14.4.4. Prototype evaluations.- 14.4.5. Testing and evaluation of germplasm and provenances.- 14.4.6. Development and fine-tuning of protocols for vegetative propagation of agroforestry species.- 14.4.7. Characterization of phenotypic variation and selection of plus-trees for improvement.- Bibliography.- 15. On-Farm Agroforestry Research.- Abstract.- Introduction.- 15.1. Rationale and approaches of on-farm research.- 15.2. Characteristics, objectives and types of on-farm agroforestry research.- 15.3. Some methods used in on-farm research.- 15.3.1. Stability analyses.- 15.3.2. Assessment of agroforestry adoption potential.- 15.4. Widespread dissemination of agroforestry technologies.- Bibliography.- Part IV: Economic and Cultural Considerations in Tropical Agroforestry.- 16. Economics in Agroforestry.- Abstract.- Introduction.- 16.1. Principles of economic analyses.- 16.2. Analysis of projects in agroforestry.- 16.2.1. Evaluations using "with" and "without" approaches.- 16.2.2. Discounting.- 16.2.3. Evaluation criteria.- Net present value.- Land expectation value.- Internal rate of return.- Benefits and Costs ratio.- 16.2.4. Break-even Relative Additional Costs (BeRAC) and Actual Relative Additional Costs (ARAC).- 16.2.5. Payback period.- 16.2.6. Farm budgeting and partial budgets.- 16.2.7. Quantification and valorization.- Capital goods.- Labor.- Land.- Benefit valuation of agroforestry products.- Direct production.- Environmental benefits.- Risk assessment in agroforestry.- Sensitivity analysis.- Risk-benefit analysis.- 16.2.8. Econometrics in agroforestry.- 16.2.9. Optimization in agroforestry.- 16.3. Economic studies in agroforestry.- 16.3.1. General studies.- 16.3.2. Agroforestry system economic studies.- 16.3.3. Alley cropping and improved fallows.- 16.3.4. Economic assessment and commercialization of other agroforestry practices.- Bibliography.- 17. Socio-Cultural Aspects of Agroforestry and Adoption.- Abstract.- Introduction.- 17.1. The social aspects of agroforestry research.- 17.2. Important socio-cultural factors for adoption of agroforestry.- 17.2.1. Land tenure.- 17.2.2. Labor.- 17.2.3. Marketing of NTFPs and AFTPs and adoption of agroforestry.- 17.2.4. Other social factors affecting the acceptability of agroforestry.- 17.3. Farmers' perceptions of planting trees.- 17.4. Public policies and implementation of agroforestry.- 17.5. Social acceptability.- Bibliography.- Part V: Outlook on Tropical Agroforestry.- 18. Tropical Agroforestry for Biofuels Production.- Abstract. Introduction.- 18.1. Tropical agroforestry species with potential for biofuel production.- 18.2. Studies on biofuels in tropical agroforestry.- Bibliography.- 19. Phytoremediation in Tropical Agroforestry.- Abstract.- Introduction.- 19.1. Tropical agroforestry species and plant-symbiont associations with potential for phytoremediation.- 19.2. Agroforestry systems with potential for phytoremediation in the tropics.- 19.2.1. Short-rotation woody crop systems and phytoremediation.- 19.2.2. Riparian buffers and phytoremediation in tropical agroforestry.- 19.2.3. Hydraulic lift and phytoremediation in tropical agroforestry.- 19.3. Tropical agroforestry and phytoremediation: next steps.- Bibliography.- 20. Agroforestry and the Carbon Market in the Tropics.- Abstract.- Introduction.- 20.1. Carbon payment mechanisms and tropical agroforestry.- 20.1.1. Carbon contract options on agroforestry.- 20.2. REDD+ in tropical agroforestry and land tenure.- 20.3. Economics of REDD+ and PES.- Bibliography.- 21. Agroforestry Modeling.- Abstract.- Introduction.- 21.1. Species choice in agroforestry.- 21.2. Computing tools uses in agroforestry.- Bibliography.
Responsibility: Damase Khasa.


This book offers a lucid analysis of current information on Agroforestry, a recognized sustainable land-use management tool in the tropics which provides environmental-friendly ecosystems and also  Read more...


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From the book reviews:"Atangana (Univ. of Alberta, Canada), along with two colleagues from Canada and one from Cameroon, have done an excellent job of presenting the basic ideas and supporting them Read more...

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