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Understanding wind power technology : theory, deployment and optimisation

Author: Alois Schaffarczyk; Gunther Roth
Publisher: Chichester, West Sussex : John Wiley & Sons, 2014.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Schaffarczyk, Alois.
Understanding wind power technology : theory, deployment and optimisation.
Chichester, West Sussex : John Wiley & Sons, 2014
(DLC) 2013022982
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Alois Schaffarczyk; Gunther Roth
ISBN: 9781118701546 1118701542 1118647513 9781118647516 1306639042 9781306639040 9781118701492 1118701496
OCLC Number: 921233331
Notes: Originally published under the title Einführung in die Windenergietechnik by Carl Hanser Verlag.
Description: 1 online resource (484 pages) : illustrations, map
Contents: Machine generated contents note: 1. History of Wind Energy / Jos Beurskens --
1.1. Introduction --
1.2. First Windmills: 600 --
1890 --
1.2.1. Technical Development of the First Horizontal Windmills --
1.3. Generation of Electricity using Wind Farms: Wind Turbines 1890 --
1930 --
1.4. First Phase of Innovation: 1930 --
1960 --
1.5. Second Phase of Innovation and Mass Production: 1960 to Today --
1.5.1. State-Supported Development of Large Wind Turbines --
1.5.2. Development of Smaller Wind Turbines --
1.5.3. Wind Farms, Offshore and Grid Connection --
1.5.4. International Grids --
1.5.5. To Summarise --
References --
2. International Development of Wind Energy / Klaus Rave --
2.1. Modern Energy Debate --
2.2. Reinvention of the Energy Market --
2.3. Importance of the Power Grid --
2.4. New Value-added Chain --
2.5. International Perspectives --
2.6. Expansion into Selected Countries --
2.7. Role of the EU --
2.8. International Institutions and Organisations --
2.8.1. Scenarios --
2.9. Global Wind Energy Outlook 2012 --
The Global View into the Future --
2.9.1. Development of the Market in Selected Countries --
2.10. Conclusion --
References --
3. Wind Resources, Site Assessment and Ecology / Hermann van Radecke --
3.1. Introduction --
3.2. Wind Resources --
3.2.1. Global Wind Systems and Ground Roughness --
3.2.2. Topography and Roughness Length --
3.2.3. Roughness Classes --
3.2.4. Contour Lines and Obstacles --
3.2.5. Wind Resources with WAsP, WindPRO, Windfarmer --
3.2.6. Correlating Wind Potential with Mesoscale Models and Reanalysis Data --
3.2.7. Wind in the Wind Farm --
3.2.8. Wind Frequency Distribution --
3.2.9. Site Classification and Annual Energy Production --
3.2.10. Reference Yield and Duration of Increased Subsidy --
3.3. Acoustics --
3.3.1. dB(A) Unit --
3.3.2. Sources of Noise --
3.3.3. Propagation through the Air --
3.3.4. Imission Site and Benchmarks --
3.3.5. Frequency Analysis, Tone Adjustment and Impulse Adjustment --
3.3.6. Methods of Noise Reduction --
3.3.7. Regulations for Minimum Distances --
3.4. Shadow --
3.5. Turbulence --
3.5.1. Turbulence from Surrounding Environment --
3.5.2. Turbulence Attributed to Turbines --
3.6. Two Comprehensive Software Tools for Planning Wind Farms --
3.7. Technical Guidelines, FGW Guidelines and IEC Standards --
3.8. Environmental Influences Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz (Federal Imission Control Act) and Approval Process --
3.8.1. German Imission Protection Law (BImSchG) --
3.8.2. Approval Process --
3.8.3. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) --
3.8.4. Specific Aspects of the Process --
3.8.5. Acceptance --
3.8.6. Monitoring and Clarifying Plant-Specific Data --
3.9. Example Problems --
3.10. Solutions to the Problems --
References --
4. Aerodynamics and Blade Design / Alois Schaffarczyk --
4.1. Summary --
4.2. Horizontal Plants --
4.2.1. General --
4.2.2. Basic Aerodynamic Terminology --
4.3. Integral Momentum Theory --
4.3.1. Momentum Theory of Wind Turbines: the Betz Limiting Value --
4.3.2. Changes in Air Density with Temperature and Altitude --
4.3.3. Influence of the Finite Blade Number --
4.3.4. Swirl Losses and Local Optimisation of the Blades According to Glauert --
4.3.5. Losses Due to Profile Drag --
4.4. Momentum Theory of the Blade Elements --
4.4.1. Formulation --
4.4.2. Example of an Implementation: WT-Perf --
4.4.3. Optimisation and Design Rules for Blades --
4.4.4. Extension of the Blade Element Method: The Differential Formulation --
4.4.5. Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) --
4.4.6. Summary: Horizontal Plants --
4.5. Vertical Plants --
4.5.1. General --
4.5.2. Aerodynamics of Rotors --
4.5.3. Aeroelastics of Vertical Axis Rotors --
4.5.4. 50 kW Rotor as an Example --
4.5.5. Design Rules for Small Wind Turbines According to H-Darrieus Type A --
4.5.6. Summary: Vertical Rotors --
4.6. Wind-Driven Vehicles with a Rotor --
4.6.1. Introduction --
4.6.2. On the Theory of Wind-Driven Vehicles --
4.6.3. Numerical Example --
4.6.4. Kiel Design Method --
4.6.5. Evaluation --
4.6.6. Completed Vehicles --
4.6.7. Summary: Wind Vehicles --
4.7. Exercises --
References --
5. Rotor Blades / Lothar Dannenberg --
5.1. Introduction --
5.2. Loads on Rotor Blades --
5.2.1. Types of Loads --
5.2.2. Fundamentals of the Strength Calculations --
5.2.3. Cross-Sectional Values of Rotor Blades --
5.2.4. Stresses and Deformations --
5.2.5. Section Forces in the Rotor Blade --
5.2.6. Bending and Inclination --
5.2.7. Results According to Beam Theory --
5.3. Vibrations and Buckling --
5.3.1. Vibrations --
5.3.2. Buckling and Stability Calculations --
5.4. Finite Element Calculations --
5.4.1. Stress Calculations --
5.4.2. FEM Buckling Calculations --
5.4.3. FEM Vibration Calculations --
5.5. Fibre-Reinforced Plastics --
5.5.1. Introduction --
5.5.2. Materials (Fibres, Resins, Additives, Sandwich Materials) --
5.5.3. Laminates and Laminate Properties --
5.6. Production of Rotor Blades --
5.6.1. Structural Parts of the Rotor Blades --
5.6.2. Composite Manufacturing Methods --
5.6.3. Assembly of the Rotor Blade --
References --
6. Drive Train / Sonke Siegfriedsen --
6.1. Introduction --
6.2. Blade Angle Adjustment Systems --
6.3. Wind Direction Tracking --
6.3.1. General --
6.3.2. Description of the Function --
6.3.3. Components --
6.3.4. Variations in Wind Direction Tracking Arrangements --
6.4. Drive Train Components --
6.4.1. Rotor Locking and Rotor Rotating Arrangements --
6.4.2. Rotor Shaft and Mountings --
6.4.3. Gears --
6.4.4. Brake and Coupling --
6.4.5. Generator --
6.5. Drive Train Concepts --
6.5.1. Direct-Driven --
Double Mounting --
6.5.2. Direct-Driven --
Torque Support --
6.5.3. One-Two Step Geared Drives --
Double Bearings --
6.5.4. One-Two Step Geared Drives --
Torque Support --
6.5.5. Three-Four Step Geared Drives --
Double Mountings --
6.5.6. Three-Four Step Geared Drives --
Three-Point Mountings --
6.5.7. Three-Four Step Geared Drives --
Torque Support --
6.6. Damage and Causes of Damage --
6.7. Design of Drive Train Components --
6.7.1. LDD --
6.7.2. RFC --
6.8. Intellectual Property in the Wind Industry --
6.8.1. Example Patents of Drive Trains --
Further Reading --
7. Tower and Foundation / Torsten Faber --
7.1. Introduction --
7.2. Guidelines and Standards --
7.3. Tower Loading --
7.3.1. Fatigue Loads --
7.3.2. Extreme Loads --
7.4. Verification of the Structure --
7.4.1. Proof of Load Capacity --
7.4.2. Proof of Fitness for Use --
7.4.3. Proof of Foundation --
7.4.4. Vibration Calculations (Eigen Frequencies) --
7.5. Design Details --
7.5.1. Door Openings in Steel Tube Towers --
7.5.2. Ring Flange Connections --
7.5.3. Welded Connections --
7.6. Materials for Towers --
7.6.1. Steel --
7.6.2. Concrete --
7.6.3. Timber --
7.6.4. Glass Fibre-Reinforced Plastic --
7.7. Model Types --
7.7.1. Tubular Towers --
7.7.2. Lattice Masts --
7.7.3. Guyed Towers --
7.8. Foundations for Onshore WTs --
7.8.1. Force of Gravity --
7.8.2. Piles --
7.8.3. Cables --
7.9. Exercises --
7.10. Solutions --
References --
8. Power Electronics and Generator Systems for Wind Turbines / Friedrich W. Fuchs --
8.1. Introduction --
8.2. Single-Phase AC Voltage and Three-Phase AC Voltage Systems --
8.3. Transformer --
8.3.1. Principle and Calculations --
8.3.2. Equivalent Circuit Diagram, Phasor Diagram --
8.3.3. Simplified Equivalent Circuit Diagram --
8.3.4. Three-Phase Transformers --
8.4. Generators for Wind Turbines --
8.4.1. Induction Machine with Short-Circuit Rotor --
8.4.2. Induction Machine with Slip Ring Rotor --
8.5. Synchronous Machines --
8.5.1. General Function --
8.5.2. Voltage Equations and Equivalent Circuit Diagram --
8.5.3. Power and Torque --
8.5.4. Models of Externally Excited Synchronous Machines --
8.5.5. Permanently Excited Synchronous Machines --
8.5.6. Variable Speed Operation of Synchronous Machines --
8.6. Converter Systems for Wind Turbines --
8.6.1. General Function --
8.6.2. Frequency Converter in Two-Level Topology --
8.6.3. Frequency Converter with Multi-Level Circuits --
8.7. Control of Variable-Speed Converter-Generator Systems --
8.7.1. Control of the Converter-Fed Induction Generator with Short-Circuit Rotor --
8.7.2. Control of the Doubly-Fed Induction Machine --
8.7.3. Control of the Synchronous Machine --
8.7.4. Control of the Grid-Side Converter --
8.7.5. Design of the Controls --
8.8. Compliance with the Grid Connection Requirements --
8.9. Further Electronic Components --
8.10. Features of the Power Electronics Generator System in Overview --
8.11. Exercises --
References --
9. Control of Wind Energy Systems / Reiner Johannes Schutt --
9.1. Fundamental Relationships --
9.1.1. Allocation of the WTS Automation --
9.1.2. System Properties of Energy Conversion in WTs --
9.1.3. Energy Transformation at the Rotor --
9.1.4. Energy Transformation at the Drive Train --
9.1.5. Energy Conversion at the Generator-Converter System --
9.1.6. Idealised Operating Characteristic Curves of WTs --
9.2. WT Control Systems --
9.2.1. Yaw Angle Control --
9.2.2. Blade Angle Control --
9.2.3. Active Power Control --
9.2.4. Reactive Power Control --
9.2.5. Summary of the Control Behaviour and Extended Operating Ranges of the WT --
9.3. Operating Management Systems for WTs --
9.3.1. Control of the Operating Sequence of WTs. Note continued: 9.3.2. Safety Systems --
9.4. Wind Farm Control and Automation Systems --
9.5. Remote Control and Monitoring --
9.6. Communication Systems for WTS --
References --
10. Grid Integration / Frank Ehlers --
10.1. Energy Supply Grids in Overview --
10.1.1. General --
10.1.2. Voltage Level of Electrical Supply Grids --
10.1.3. Grid Structures --
10.2. Grid Control --
10.2.1. Controlling the Power Range --
10.2.2. Compensating Power and Balancing Grids --
10.2.3. Base Load, Medium Load and Peak Load --
10.2.4. Frequency Stability --
10.2.5. Primary Control, Secondary Control and Tertiary Control --
10.2.6. Voltage Stability --
10.2.7. System Services by means of Wind Turbines --
10.3. Basic Terminology of Grid Integration of Wind Turbines --
10.3.1. Basic Electrical Terminology --
10.3.2. Grid Quality --
10.4. Grid Connections for WTs --
10.4.1. Rating the Grid Operating Media --
10.4.2. Checking the Voltage Changes/Voltage Band --
10.4.3. Checking the Grid Reaction ̀Fast Voltage Change' --
10.4.4. Checking the Short-Circuit Strength --
10.5. Grid Connection of WTs --
10.5.1. Switchgear --
10.5.2. Protective Equipment --
10.5.3. Integration into the Grid System --
10.6. Further Developments in Grid Integration and Outlook --
10.6.1. Grid Expansion --
10.6.2. Load Displacement --
10.6.3. Energy Storage --
References --
11. Offshore Wind Energy / Lothar Dannenberg --
11.1. Offshore Wind Turbines --
11.1.1. Introduction --
11.1.2. Differences between Offshore and Onshore WTs --
11.1.3. Environmental Conditions and Nature Protection --
11.2. Currents and Loads --
11.2.1. Currents --
11.2.2. Current Loads --
11.2.3. Vortex Shedding of Bodies Subject to Flows --
11.3. Waves, Wave Loads --
11.3.1. Wave Theories --
11.3.2. Superposition of Waves and Currents --
11.3.3. Loads Due to Waves (Morison Method) --
11.4. Swell --
11.4.1. Regular Swell --
11.4.2. Irregular or Natural Swells --
11.4.3. Statistics --
11.4.4. Swell Spectra --
11.4.5. Influence of Currents --
11.4.6. Long-Term Statistics of the Swell --
11.4.7. Extreme Waves --
11.5. Scouring Formation, Growth, Corrosion and Ice --
11.5.1. Scouring --
11.5.2. Marine Growth --
11.5.3. Ice Loads --
11.5.4. Corrosion --
11.6. Foundations for OWTs --
11.6.1. Introduction --
11.6.2. Fixed Foundations --
11.6.3. Floating Foundations --
11.6.4. Operating Strength --
11.7. Soil Mechanics --
11.7.1. Introduction --
11.7.2. Soil Properties --
11.7.3. Calculation of Load-Bearing Behaviour of the Sea Bed --
References.
Responsibility: edited by Alois Schaffarczyk ; translated by Gunther Roth.

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