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Vegetable oils in food technology : composition, properties and uses

Author: Frank D Gunstone
Publisher: Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell, 2011.
Edition/Format:   Computer file : English : 2. ed
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Our dietary intake comprises three macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate and lipid) and a large but unknown number of micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, etc). Good health rests, in  Read more...

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Genre/Form: Online-Publikation
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Frank D Gunstone
ISBN: 9781444332681 1444332686 9781444339901 1444339907 9781444339918 1444339915 9781444339925 1444339923
OCLC Number: 880681701
Description: 1 online resource (XIX, 353 S. :) : graph. Darst
Contents: Preface to the First Edition xiPreface to the Second Edition xiiContributors xiiiList of Abbreviations xv1 Production and Trade of Vegetable Oils 1Frank D. Gunstone1.1 Extraction, refining and processing 11.2 Vegetable oils: Production, consumption and trade 31.2.1 Nine vegetable oils 31.2.2 Palm oil 81.2.3 Soybean oil 81.2.4 Rapeseed/canola oil 101.2.5 Sunflower seed oil 111.2.6 Groundnut (peanut) oil 121.2.7 Cottonseed oil 121.2.8 Coconut oil 121.2.9 Palm kernel oil 131.2.10 Olive oil 131.2.11 Corn oil 141.2.12 Sesame oil 141.2.13 Linseed oil 141.3 Some topical issues 141.3.1 Imports into China and India 141.3.2 Trade in oilseeds and in vegetable oils 151.3.3 Food and non-food use of vegetable oils 151.3.4 Prices 161.3.5 The food-fuel debate 191.3.6 Predictions for future supply and demand 211.3.7 Sustainability 221.3.8 Genetic modification 23References 242 Palm Oil 25Siew Wai Lin2.1 Introduction 252.2 Composition and properties of palm oil and fractions 252.2.1 Palm oil 252.2.2 Palm olein 292.2.3 Palm stearin 312.3 Physical characteristics of palm oil products 332.3.1 Palm oil 332.3.2 Palm olein 342.3.3 Palm stearin 342.4 Minor components of palm oil products 352.4.1 Carotenes 362.4.2 Tocopherols and tocotrienols (tocols) 402.4.3 Sterols, squalene and other hydrocarbons 412.5 Food applications of palm oil products 422.5.1 Cooking/frying oil 422.5.2 Margarines 442.5.3 Shortenings 472.5.4 Vanaspati 492.5.5 Cocoa butter equivalents (CBE) 512.5.6 Other uses 522.6 Nutritional aspects of palm oil 522.7 Sustainable palm oil 532.8 Conclusions 53References 543 Soybean Oil 59Tong Wang3.1 Introduction 593.2 Composition of soybean and soybean oil 593.2.1 Seed composition 593.2.2 Oil composition 593.2.3 Fatty acid composition 613.2.4 Minor components 633.3 Recovery and refining of soybean oil 653.3.1 Oil extraction 653.3.2 Oil refining 673.3.3 Modified non-alkaline refining 713.3.4 Co-products from oil refining 733.3.5 Fatty acid esters of glycidol and 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol as processing contaminants 773.4 Oil composition modification by processing and biotechnology 793.4.1 Hydrogenation 793.4.2 Interesterification 803.4.3 Crystallization and fractionation 833.4.4 Traditional plant breeding and genetic modification 833.4.5 Oxidative and sensory properties of low-linolenic acid soybean oil to replace trans frying oil 853.5 Physical properties of soybean oil 873.5.1 Polymorphism 873.5.2 Density 883.5.3 Viscosity 883.5.4 Refractive index 893.5.5 Specific heat 893.5.6 Melting point 903.5.7 Heat of combustion 903.5.8 Smoke, flash, and fire points 903.5.9 Solubility 913.5.10 Plasticity and spreadability 913.5.11 Electrical resistivity 913.6 Oxidation evaluation of soybean oil 923.7 Nutritional properties of soybean oil 933.8 Food uses of soybean oil 953.8.1 Cooking and salad oils 953.8.2 Margarine and shortening 963.8.3 Mayonnaise and salad dressing 97References 984 Canola/Rapeseed Oil 107Roman Przybylski4.1 Introduction 1074.2 Composition 1084.2.1 Nature of edible oils and fats 1084.2.2 Fatty acid composition of canola oil 1094.2.3 Minor fatty acids 1104.2.4 Triacylglycerols 1114.2.5 Polar lipids 1134.2.6 Tocopherols 1154.2.7 Sterols 1164.2.8 Pigments 1184.2.9 Trace elements 1194.2.10 Commercial crude oil, refined, and deodorized oil 1194.2.11 Oxidative stability 1204.3 Physical and chemical properties 1214.3.1 Relative density 1214.3.2 Viscosity 1224.3.3 Smoke and flash point 1224.3.4 Cold test 1224.3.5 Crismer value 1224.3.6 Saponification number 1224.3.7 Iodine value 1234.3.8 Melting characteristics, polymorphism, and crystal properties 1234.4 Major food uses 1234.4.1 Standard canola/rapeseed oil 1234.4.2 High-erucic acid rapeseed (HEAR) oil 1324.5 Conclusion and outlook 133References 1335 Sunflower Oil 137Maria A. Grompone5.1 Introduction 1375.2 Sunflower oil from different types of seed 1385.2.1 Regular sunflower seeds 1385.2.2 Commercial sunflower oil types 1385.2.3 Composition of commercially available sunflower oil types 1395.2.4 Other sunflower seed types to be commercialised 1475.3 Physical and chemical properties 1485.3.1 Relative density 1485.3.2 Viscosity 1495.3.3 Refractive index 1495.3.4 Smoke point, flash point and fire point 1495.3.5 Other physical properties 1505.4 Melting properties and thermal behaviour 1505.4.1 Melting properties of regular sunflower oil 1505.4.2 Thermal behaviour of different sunflower oil types 1505.5 Extraction and processing of sunflower oil 1505.5.1 Preparation of sunflower seeds for extraction 1515.5.2 Sunflower oil extraction 1515.5.3 Processing of crude sunflower oil 1515.6 Modified properties of sunflower oil 1535.6.1 Hydrogenation of regular sunflower oil 1545.6.2 Interesterification of sunflower oil 1545.7 Oxidative stability of commercial sunflower oils 1555.7.1 Inherent stability of different commercial sunflower oil types 1555.7.2 Shelf- life of sunflower oil 1565.7.3 Accelerated ageing of sunflower oil 1575.7.4 Stabilisation of sunflower oil by added antioxidants 1585.8 Food uses of different sunflower oil types 1605.8.1 Use of regular sunflower oil as salad oil and cooking oil 1605.8.2 Margarine and shortening 1605.9 Frying use of commercial sunflower oil types 1615.9.1 Frying use of regular sunflower oil 1615.9.2 Frying use of high- oleic sunflower oil 1625.9.3 Frying use of mid- oleic sunflower oil 1635.9.4 Frying use of sunflower oils with a high content of saturated fatty acids 163Acknowledgement 163References 1636 The Lauric (Coconut and Palm Kernel) Oils 169Ibrahim Nuzul Amri6.1 Introduction 1696.2 Coconut oil 1696.2.1 Coconut palm 1696.2.2 Coconut oil 1706.2.3 Composition 1716.2.4 Properties 1756.2.5 Trade specifications 1776.3 Palm kernel oil 1786.3.1 Palm kernel oil 1786.3.2 Composition 1796.3.3 Properties 1836.3.4 Trade specifications 1856.4 Processing 1856.4.1 Fractionation 1856.4.2 Hydrogenation 1876.4.3 Interesterification 1886.5 Food uses 1906.5.1 Frying 1906.5.2 Margarine 1906.5.3 Medium-chain triacylglycerols 1916.5.4 Speciality fats: Cocoa butter substitutes 1926.5.5 Filling creams 1926.5.6 Non-dairy creamer 1926.5.7 Non-dairy whipping cream 1936.5.8 Non-dairy cheese 1936.5.9 Filled milk 1936.5.10 Ice cream 1936.5.11 Toffees and caramels 1946.6 Health aspects 194References 1947 Cottonseed Oil 199Michael K. Dowd7.1 Introduction 1997.2 History 2007.3 Seed composition 2037.4 Oil composition 2047.4.1 Triacylglycerol fatty acids 2057.4.2 Other oil components 2087.4.3 Gossypol 2117.5 Chemical and physical properties of cottonseed oil 2137.6 Processing 2167.6.1 Seed preparation 2167.6.2 Oil extraction 2177.6.3 Oil finishing 2187.6.4 Additional processing 2197.7 Cottonseed oil uses 2197.8 Co-product uses 220References 2218 Groundnut (Peanut) Oil 225Lisa L. Dean, Jack P. Davis, and Timothy H. Sanders8.1 Peanut production, history, and oil extraction 2258.2 Oil uses 2268.2.1 Frying and food 2268.2.2 Feed 2278.3 Composition of groundnut oil 2278.3.1 Oil in seed 2278.3.2 Fatty acids 2288.3.3 High-oleic peanut oil 2298.3.4 Triacylglycerol structure 2308.3.5 Phospholipids 2318.3.6 Sterols 2328.3.7 Antioxidants 2328.4 Chemical and physical characteristics of groundnut oil 2348.4.1 General 2348.4.2 Color 2348.4.3 Density and viscosity 2348.4.4 Melting point/crystallization 2358.4.5 Free fatty acid (FFA) 2368.4.6 Iodine value (IV) 2368.4.7 Peroxide value 2368.4.8 Acetyl value 2368.4.9 Heat of fusion 2368.4.10 Unsaponifiable material 2368.5 Health issues 2378.5.1 Cardiovascular disease and diabetes 2378.5.2 Weight control 2378.5.3 Allergy 238Note 239References 2399 Olive Oil 243Dimitrios Boskou9.1 Introduction 2439.2 Extraction of olive oil from olives 2439.2.1 Pressure 2449.2.2 Centrifugation (three-phase system) 2449.2.3 Two-phase decanters 2449.2.4 Percolation (selective filtration) 2459.2.5 Processing aids 2459.2.6 Extraction of pomace oil (olive residue oil) 2459.3 Olive oil composition 2459.3.1 Fatty acids and triacylglycerols 2469.3.2 Mono- and di-acylglycerols 2479.3.3 Other constituents 2479.4 Effect of processing olives on the composition of virgin olive oils 2589.4.1 Aroma compounds 2589.4.2 Polyphenols 2589.4.3 Other minor constituents 2599.5 Refining and modification 2599.5.1 Olive oil and olive pomace oil refining 2599.5.2 Refining and minor constituents 2609.6 Hardening and interesterification 2619.7 Quality, genuineness and regulations 2619.7.1 Olive oil 2629.7.2 Analysis and authentication 2649.8 Consumption and culinary applications 2669.8.1 Olive oil in frying 267References 26810 Corn Oil 273Robert A. Moreau10.1 Composition of corn oil 27310.1.1 Introduction: The corn oil industry 27310.1.2 Common corn oil refining steps and effects on oil composition 27410.1.3 The composition of crude corn oils - comparison of corn germ oil, corn kernel oil, and corn fiber oil 27710.1.4 Fatty acid composition of corn triacylglycerols 27710.1.5 Triacylglycerol molecular species 27810.1.6 Unsaponifiables and phytosterols 27810.1.7 Tocopherols and tocotrienols 27910.1.8 Carotenoids 28010.1.9 Trans fatty acids 28210.2 Properties of corn oil 28210.2.1 Chemical and physical properties 28210.2.2 Stability 28210.2.3 Nutritional properties 28410.3 Major food uses of corn oil 28510.3.1 Cooking/salad oil 28510.3.2 Margarines and spreads 28510.4 Conclusions 286References 28611 Minor and Speciality Oils 291S. Prakash Kochhar11.1 Introduction 29111.2 Sesame seed oil 29111.2.1 World seed production 29111.2.2 Lipid composition 29211.2.3 Seed processing and oil refining 29611.2.4 Sesame antioxidants and oil stability 29711.2.5 Health-promoting effects 29811.3 Rice bran oil 29911.3.1 Production of bran and oil extraction 29911.3.2 Oil refining and high-value by-products 30111.3.3 Lipid composition and food uses 30311.3.4 Potential health benefits and future trends 30511.4 Flaxseed (linseed and linola) oil 30611.4.1 Flax production and oil composition 30611.4.2 Edible uses of flaxseed and its oil 30811.4.3 Linola oil 30911.5 Safflower oil 30911.6 Argan kernel oil 31311.7 Avocado oil 31511.8 Camelina seed oil 31511.9 Grape seed oil 31711.10 Pumpkin seed oil 31911.11 Sea buckthorn oil 32011.12 Cocoa butter and CBE 32111.12.1 Cocoa butter 32111.12.2 Illipe butter (Borneo tallow) 32211.12.3 Kokum butter 32211.12.4 Sal fat 32211.12.5 Shea butter 32311.12.6 Mango kernel fat 32411.13 Oils containing ??-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA) 32411.13.1 Evening primrose oil 32411.13.2 Borage oil 32511.13.3 Blackcurrant seed oil 32611.13.4 Stearidonic acid oils 32611.13.5 Nutritional and health benefits of GLA and SDA oils 32711.14 Tree nut oils 32711.14.1 Brazil nut kernel oil 32811.14.2 Hazel nut oil 32811.14.3 Macadamia nut oil 32911.14.4 Walnut oil 33111.14.5 Health benefits of nuts and nut lipids 331References 331Useful Websites 343Index 347
Responsibility: ed. by Frank D. Gunstone.

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