Wildlife crime policy and the law : an Australian study (Book, 1997) [WorldCat.org]
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Wildlife crime policy and the law : an Australian study

Author: Don McDowell
Publisher: Canberra : Australian Govt. Pub. Service, 1997.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Don McDowell
ISBN: 0644476117 9780644476119
OCLC Number: 38977896
Notes: Includes list of State and Territory wildlife legislation.
Description: vi, 188 pages ; 25 cm
Contents: Chapter 1. Introduction --
1.1. About this assessment --
Setting policy --
The objectives and parameters of this study --
1.2. Defining the setting --
The topic, the law and public perceptions --
Criminals or simple wrong-doers? --
Policies and commitment at all levels of government --
1.3. Methodological approach used in this study --
Collecting both 'hard' and 'soft' data --
Accessing enforcement and compliance-related data --
Client expectations and their impact on project design --
Interaction with members of the public --
Ensuring sensitivity --
Estimating the size of the problem --
ch. 2. Wildlife legislation --
2.1. Federal and State responsibilities for the regulation of the movement of wildlife --
2.2. The influence of historical antecedents on the development of wildlife legislation at the State level --
2.3. The marketplace --
Efectively regulating the marketplace --
The objectives of effective regulation --
2.4. Legislative provisions for intra-state transactions in fauna 2.5. Legislative provisions for interstate transactions --
Reverse onus of proof --
The range of species available for possession --
Involvement of non-regulatory personnel in detection of trafficking --
Anomalies --
2.6. Non-legislative administrative provisions --
Containment and monitoring of transaction provisions --
2.7. Potential for laundering of illegal activities through a record-keeping system --
ch. 3. Wildlife enforcement: structures and mechanisms --
3.1. The basic issues --
Defining the roles of enforcement --
Anti-crime activities v. compliance monitoring --
Differentiating between Federal and State/Territory roles --
3.2. Federal enforcement arrangements --
Wildlife Australia --
The Australia Customs Service --
The Australian Quarantine Inspection Service --
The Australian Federal Police --
3.3. State and Territory enforcement arrangements --
Parks and wildlife departments --
Other police forces --
The Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence 3.4. International cooperative agreements: CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) --
ch. 4. Crime and wildlife --
4.1. Illegal trading: differentiating crime and non-compliance --
Wildlife control regulations and their intent --
Permit-holders: keeping to the rules --
Opting out of the control systems --
Going beyond permit violations: the entry into crime --
4.2. Types of offences involving Australian wildlife --
Permit violations and 'backyard trade' --
Organised illegal trading: the middle tier --
Serious, major crime activities: Australian and overseas markets --
4.3. Smuggling exotica into Australia --
Illegal trafficking of exotica --
Potential risks to Australian wildlife, agriculture, animal and population health --
Policies, priorities and controls --
4.4. Patterns of wildlife crime and non-compliance --
Measuring or estimating the extent of illegal activity --
Offences against Federal legislation --
Features of wildlife smuggling 4.5. The elements of criminal planning --
Selection of wildlife species for collection --
Determination of their likely markets and pricing structure --
Source locations for targeted widlife species --
Availability of skilled and experience participants --
Recruitment of 'support' participants --
Maps, sketches and photos of collection sites --
Local knowledge --
Travel arrangements: bases, staging points and collection sites --
Communication systems --
Concealment methods and special equipment needs --
4.6. Moving into crime --
Preparation, organisation and motivation --
4.7. Facilitating conditions for wildlife crime --
Legislative gaps and inconsistencies --
Priority and resource differences between agencies --
Illegal focus on 'desirable' species of wildlife --
Criminal perceptions: availability of markets; high profit margins; low risk 4.8. The impact of wildlife crime --
Targeted wildlife species: attraction and intended markets --
Risk to wildlife populations and habitat --
Public reaction to wildlife trafficking --
Direct economic impact --
ch. 5. The conduct and impact of enforcement activity --
5.1. Introduction --
5.2. Agency priorities and the impact --
5.3. Interagency arrangements and cooperation --
Annual wildlife enforcement seminars --
5.4. Information, investigation and technology --
Information collection and data handling --
The application of computer technology --
Information sharing --
5.5. Providing intelligences support to wildlife enforcement --
The need for intelligence --
Existing intelligence resources --
Arguing the case for intelligence in wildlife enforcement --
Options for centralised intelligence support --
Design features for a national widlife intelligence unit --
Staffing the intelligence apparatus --
5.6. Enforcement outcomes and the measurement 5.7. Managing the enforcement of wildlife law --
Enforcement vis a vis public perceptions of crime --
5.9. Attitude of the courts --
5.10. Impact on criminals and other wrong-doers --
Repeat offences by individuals committing low-level crime --
Recidivism and more serious, organised wildlife crime --
Changes in criminal behaviour: the impact of enforcement action --
5.11. International cooperative efforts in enforcement --
5.12. Corruption of officials --
Public perception: folklore, assertion or evidence? --
Corrupt behaviour: opportunities and patterns --
Plcing corruption in perspective --
ch. 6. Key issues for wildlife futures --
6.1. Perceptions of the wildlife 'problem' --
Personal belief systems and their impact on wildlife policy --
Wildlife species, interest groups and their focus --
Differentiating endagnered and at riks wildlife from other categories of wild species --
Understanding the disparate views: the public, industry and enforcement 6.2. Issues for policy-making, legislation, regulation and strategy development --
Rules, regulations and common sense: generating and evaluating possibilities for change --
Emotional, cultural and scientific views of wildlife crime: seeking sensible compromise --
Formulating policies to suit specific risk categories of wildlife --
Developing safeguards for the continuance of gene pools --
Deterring crime and minimising illegal market opportunities --
Public education, the media and public involvement in countering wildlife crime --
ch. 7. Wildlife policy and practice: options for change --
7.1. The wildlife policy setting --
Defining national environmental and conservation objectives --
Competing pressures on wildlife: illegal trafficking; threatened habitat; gene pool reduction; natural predation --
Developing holistic policy options: addressing total wildlife protection needs 7.2. Policy development alternatives --
Federal and State/Territory legislation --
Enforcement roles and responsibilities --
7.3. Conclusion --
appendix 1. Wildlife study: project directive and terms of references --
appendix 2. State and Territory wildlife legislation (includes table of comparison of trafficking provisions) --
appendix 3. Summary of Federal prosecutions under the Wildlife Protection (Regulation of Exports and Imports) Act 1982 --
appendix 4. Selected bibliography and further reading --
appendix 5. CITES: explanatory notes on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
Responsibility: Don McDowell.


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